Electron Microscopy Laboratory of TUBITAK Marmara Research Center Materials Institute has been in operation since 1974 after instalment of first Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Since 2005 the “Electron Microscopes and Atomic Force Microscopes Laboratories” have 2 Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM), 2 Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM) and 2 Atomic Force Microscopes (AFM).
First, Cambridge S4-10 Stereoscan SEM was purchased in 1974. Afterwards, in 1975 Ortec 6230 EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometer) system was added. JEOL JEM 100C TEM came to the laboratory in 1976. JEOL JXA-840A SEM equipped with Noran/Tracor Northern TN-2000 (later iXRF) EDS system was purchased in 1983. Later on, JEOL 6335F JSM SEM (2002), Oxford Instruments EDS-EBSD; Quesant Ambios Universal SPM (Scanning Probe Microscope) and Quesant Ambios AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) Q-Scope (2005); JEOL 2100 JEM HRTEM (2005) and latest in 2009 JEOL 6510-LV JSM SEM equipment formed the Electron Microscopes and Atomic Force Microscopes Laboratories.
With High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) investigation related to material microstructure and nanostructure can be performed especially related to nanotechnology. Atomic lattice imaging can be done with the help of HRTEM. Moreover, with the EDS system semi quantitative analyses can be made in the nano level. With TEM and HRTEM; bright field, dark field images and diffraction patterns can be get.
SEM can investigate surface morphology of almost any kind of materials. Powder or bulk materials can be imaged at high magnifications and size and morphology of nanomaterials or nano-sized features can be studied. Spot and line analyses and elemental mapping can be performed with SEM-EDS. Fracture analysis or failure analysis can be made with SEM. Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) system can help to study phases, orientation and texture of materials which are polished to a smooth surface.
Similar to SEM Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a surface technique. However, in addition to imaging we can get z-height and roughness information too. Moreover, the material does not need to withstand electron beam or vacuum. AFMs can be used on any kind of material in a wide range of industrial applications. Thin films, coatings, hard disk surfaces, polymers, biological samples, nanomaterials can be investigated with AFMs. Surface processes effects can be studied with AFM.
Nanotechnology, ceramic, metal, composite, coatings, semiconductors, electronics, energy, plastic, textile, optic, pharmaceutical, biomaterials, archaeology, geology, cement, mining and photonic are the application fields used frequently.